Harlan poses with the goat, known as a markhor, in pictures published in Pakistani media.
The paper reports that the fee was the highest ever paid for a hunt in Pakistan, and the third American hunter to pay at least $100,000 in permit fees in recent weeks.
But the hunt has prompted fury on social media in both countries, with commentators labeling the killing as cruel.
“Goats are gentle individuals, not trophies,” animals rights group PETA wrote on Twitter, while some Pakistanis called for a ban on hunting such animals.
The markhor is the national animal of Pakistan, but its horns make it an attractive target for marksmen and it is legal to hunt the animal in the country.
Classed as an endangered species until 2015, it is now considered “near-threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature after its numbers began to increase.